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The Core vaccines are recommended for all dogs.
DHPP or DAPP protects against four common, debilitating diseases:
Distemper virus: an extremely contagious and potentially fatal viral disease, spread by nasal discharge and fomites from infected animals. It is closely related to the measles virus. It attacks many organs, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and nervous systems. There is no known cure. Dogs that survive will probably have permanent neurologic damage.
Hepatitis (Infectious Canine Hepatitis) virus: this disease is caused by an Adenovirus, and is transmitted by contact with secretions such as saliva, infected urine or feces. It causes liver failure, eye damage and respiratory problems. Disease can be anything from mild to fatal.
Parainfluenza virus: A highly contagious respiratory virus, and one of the most common pathogens of infectious tracheobronchitis (commonly called Kennel Cough), this virus is airborne. Dogs remain infective for two weeks after infection – seemingly healthy dogs can spread this disease. It is very common anywhere that dogs congregate, like daycare, parks, and other play areas.
Parvovirus: A very contagious virus that attacks the gastrointestinal system and, occasionally, the heart. It is spread through infected feces, and causes severe vomiting and diarrhea. The diarrhea can be very bloody. Most dogs require several days of hospitalization and intensive care to survive; some need blood and plasma transfusions.
The Rabies vaccine is considered a core vaccine for both dogs and cats. Rabies is almost always fatal, and is easily transmitted to humans.
The Non Core vaccines are recommended depending upon lifestyle and risk factors.
Leptospirosis: a leading cause of acute kidney failure in dogs, and can also damage the liver. Severe infections can be fatal. Pets (and people) can acquire the infection through exposure to contaminated urine or other bodily fluids from infected animals. Animals that may carry and spread leptospirosis include dogs, rodents, wild animals, cattle, horses and pigs, among others. Infected animals may have no symptoms, but may shed the bacterium into the environment for months to years. Leptospirosis enters the body through contact with mucus membranes or a cut or scrape. Signs of disease are very broad, and can include fever, shivering, muscle tenderness, stiffness, increased thirst; increased or decreased urination, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, inappetance, jaundice, and inflammation within the eyes.
Bordetella (a pathogen in the infectious tracheobronchitis group): also called Kennel Cough, this bacterium is spread through exposure to airborne contaminants from infected dogs or their respiratory or salivary secretions via food and water bowls, toys and cages. As the bacterium multiplies, it destroys the lining of the dog’s trachea, resulting in a deep cough. Dogs may cough to the point of gagging and retching. They can also develop fever, sneezing, nasal discharge, loss of appetite and depression. Left untreated, Bordetella can cause pneumonia.
Lyme: Transmitted through the bite of a tick, this bacterium causes a characteristic “bulls-eye” rash in humans, which IS NOT seen in dogs (they have a coat which masks the rash if it does occur). Dogs show signs 2-5 months after being bitten by an infected tick. Signs usually include a moderate to high fever, lameness, swelling in the joints, swollen lymph nodes, lethargy and inappetance. In more serious cases, dogs devedop severe progressive kidney disease, which is very difficult to treat and may result in the death of the dog. Dogs may also develop hear problems or nervous system disease. The bacterium that causes Lyme disease is found in ticks all over Oregon.
Canine Influenza: two very different influenza viruses cause canine influenza. H3N8 began as an equine influenza virus. In 2004 the virus jumped to dogs, and it has been spreading in our country’s dog population since then. H3N2 originated in Asia in 2006, probably from an avian influenza virus. In 2015, H3N2 was diagnosed in dogs in Chicago, and is now spreading across the US. Both viruses are spread via aerosolized respiratory secretions (coughing, barking, sneezing) and contaminated objects (kennel surfaces, food and water bowls, collars, leashes, and people). Dogs are most contagious BEFORE they show signs of illness, during the 2-4 day incubation period; however, they can continue to shed the virus for up to 10 days (up to 24 days with H3N2). Dogs that show signs of disease develop a cough, runny nose and fever. Not all dogs show signs, although they may be shedding the virus. Some dogs will develop pneumonia, and some may die.